Formerly considered to be the sole member of Setophaga and thought to be probably close to Mniotilta, but genetic data instead reveal that present species is embedded within the former “Dendroica” assemblage#R. Has hybridized with S. americana and probably also with Leiothlypis ruficapilla. W breeding birds described as race tricolor, but generally considered inseparable from those elsewhere in species’ range. Monotypic.
C & S Canada (NW British Columbia, extreme S Yukon and SW Northwest Territories E to Newfoundland and Nova Scotia) S through much of C & E USA (but excluding most of SW & SE). Migrates to Central America (S from NW & C Mexico), Caribbean and NW South America (excluding Amazon Basin); small numbers winter on coast of SE USA (S Florida), and also rarely in SW USA (S California).
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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