Laramie Peak, Wyoming.
Forms a superspecies with P. tridactylus, and commonly treated as conspecific; genetic evidence, however, coupled with geographical isolation and differences in plumage, indicate that the two are probably better considered separate species. Closely related also to P. arcticus, but probably less so to other congeners. Races intergrade. Labrador birds named as separate race labradorius, supposedly larger and darker with more barred flanks than bacatus, but differences thought not to be constant or significant, and new taxon subsequently abandoned by describer. Three subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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