Family Ducks, Geese, Swans (Anatidae)

Least Concern

Andean Duck (Oxyura ferruginea)


French: Érismature des Andes German: Andenruderente Spanish: Malvasía andina

Erismatura ferruginea


, 1838,



Often considered a full species, and this view accepted here: male differs from male O. jamaicensis in its all-black hood vs black crown and nape and white face and chin (female also has much darker head with no pale pattern) (3); extensive dark chestnut breast vs chestnut upper breast and whitish lower breast (2); underparts blackish-grey with white flecks vs whitish with grey flecks (2); ferruginous vs white undertail-coverts (shown in display) (ns[2]); larger size (mean wing 161·9 vs 149·8, with no overlap#R) (at least 1). Form andina, intermediate between jamaicensis and ferruginea, shows marked individual variation, may be of hybrid origin#R#R, and is here incorporated in ferruginea. Monotypic.


Andes from Colombia S to Tierra del Fuego.

Descriptive notes

45–48 cm; 817–848 g. Small and dumpy, with short neck and broad, concave-ridged bill and prominent head. Compared to O. jamaicensis, with which this species was... read more


No described differences from O. jamaicensis, with mechanical drumming or bubbling sounds... read more


Freshwater swamps, lakes, pools and marshes with emergent vegetation and areas of open water, but... read more

Food and feeding

No detailed studies reported to date; perhaps favours Chara, but overall diet and foraging strategies are unlikely to differ much... read more


Very poorly known compared to O. jamaicensis, with which often lumped in the past. Season apparently most of year in Colombia and... read more


Probably mainly sedentary or subject to only small-scale movements.

Status and conservation

Not globally threatened (Least Concern). Generally uncommon to fairly common, with total population of between 25,000 and 100,000 individuals, including significant numbers... read more

Recommended citation

del Hoyo, J., Collar, N. & Kirwan, G.M. (2020). Andean Duck (Oxyura ferruginea). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from on 3 April 2020).