Often considered a full species, and this view accepted here: male differs from male O. jamaicensis in its all-black hood vs black crown and nape and white face and chin (female also has much darker head with no pale pattern) (3); extensive dark chestnut breast vs chestnut upper breast and whitish lower breast (2); underparts blackish-grey with white flecks vs whitish with grey flecks (2); ferruginous vs white undertail-coverts (shown in display) (ns); larger size (mean wing 161·9 vs 149·8, with no overlap#R) (at least 1). Form andina, intermediate between jamaicensis and ferruginea, shows marked individual variation, may be of hybrid origin#R#R, and is here incorporated in ferruginea. Monotypic.
Andes from Colombia S to Tierra del Fuego.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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