Chulumani, Yungas, east side of the Cordillera, Bolivia.
See M. melanops (above). A genetic study#R found that races of present species may comprise more than one species. Recordings reveal that races plumbeiceps, venezuelensis and ralloides divide into three distinct vocal groups (the unknown candelae presumably close to plumbeiceps), with plumbeiceps and venezuelensis both giving short strophes separated by long pauses (but latter with higher average frequency range per note, lower average number of notes per phrase and longer average length of notes), while ralloides produces short phrases separated by short pauses, resulting in an almost continuous song; thus nominate is more different from the other two than they are from each other#R. However, claim that birds south of the Marañón (i.e. ralloides) are mostly chestnut-crowned and those north of it mostly grey-crowned#R could not be confirmed in AMNH (the same material used to make the claim); instead venezuelensis appears to have a yellower lower mandible and a fractionally paler belly, plumbeiceps is biggest-billed and richest chestnut above, and ralloides is dingier, more olive-tinged above. Further work needed to determine if species limits need revision. Four subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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