Family Finches (Fringillidae)

Least Concern

Apapane (Himatione sanguinea)


French: Picchion cramoisi German: Apapanekleidervogel Spanish: Apapane

Certhia sanguinea

J. F. Gmelin

, 1788,

Sandwich Islands = Hawaii


Long regarded as conspecific with extinct Laysan species †H. fraithii, but treated as separate species based on a suite of potential isolating mechanisms (song and its phenology, feeding behaviour, nest placement and structure, as well as habitat) and osteological differences. Has hybridized with Drepanis coccinea#R. Monotypic.


Main Hawaiian Is: Kauai, Oahu, Lanai, Molokai, Maui and Hawaii.

Descriptive notes

13 cm; male 16 g, female 14·4 g. Medium-sized honeycreeper with short, downcurved but not sickle-shaped bill. Most of head and body, including shoulders and upperwing-... read more


Call a loud downslurred "tewp" or "teerp", often uttered in flight. Song almost... read more


Ohia-lehua (Metrosideros polymor­pha) forest.

Food and feeding

Mostly nectar from crimson ohia-lehua flowers (of which this species is a major pollinator), also insects gleaned from flowers and foliage... read more


Breeds in most months of year. Monogamous. Male courtship display includes singing while hopping from branch to branch, with tail cocked to... read more


Resident. Wanders in search of nectar resources. On Hawaii, makes daily flights to lowland feeding... read more

Status and conservation

Not globally threatened (Least Concern). Restricted-range species: present in Central Hawaiian Islands EBA and Hawai‘i EBA. Abundant. Densities of 4000/km2, among... read more

Recommended citation

Pratt, D. (2020). Apapane (Himatione sanguinea). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from on 25 February 2020).