Family Sunbirds (Nectariniidae)

Near Threatened

Apo Sunbird (Aethopyga boltoni)


French: Souimanga de Bolton German: Mindanaonektarvogel Spanish: Suimanga de Bolton

Æthopyga boltoni


, 1905,

Mount Apo, 6250 feet [c. 1900 m], Mindanao, Philippines


Split of race tibolii recommended on molecular grounds and “subtle phenotypic differences”#R; further evidence, including more recordings of voices, needed. Three subspecies recognized.

Subspecies and Distribution
  • A. b. malindangensis Rand & Rabor, 1957 – Mt Malindang, in W Mindanao (S Philippines).
  • A. b. boltoni Mearns, 1905 – Apo Sunbird – Mt Kitanglad, Mt McKinley and Mt Apo, in C Mindanao.
  • A. b. tibolii Kennedy et al., 1997 – Tiboli Sunbird – Mt Busa and Mt Matutum, and presumably Mt Parker and L Sebu, in S Mindanao.
  • Descriptive notes

    Male 12 cm, 4·9–9·2 g; female 10·8 cm, 6–8·5 g. Male nominate race has head dark grey, becoming olive-green on back and upperwing, forehead with metallic greyish-... read more


    Song rapidly produced, rising, squeaky, high-pitched trill of c. 15 notes, or rapid even-pitched... read more


    Forest, generally above 1500 m, sometimes down to 1100 m.

    Food and feeding

    Forages singly and in pairs; joins mixed-species flocks. No other information available.


    Nesting recorded in Jan–May and Jul, and birds with enlarged gonads in Mar–Apr. Nest a pendulous bag, 8 × 16 cm, with side... read more


    Nothing recorded.

    Status and conservation

    Not globally threatened. Currently considered Near-threatened. Restrictedrange species: present in Mindanao and the Eastern Visayas EBA. Common within its range. Although its... read more

    Recommended citation

    Cheke, R. & Mann, C. (2019). Apo Sunbird (Aethopyga boltoni). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from on 12 December 2019).