eastern and western coasts of North America.
Taxonomy of present species and its close relatives represents one of the most complex challenges in systematic ornithology (see further comments under L. argentatus). Molecular work places present form at a distance from other taxa in the complex#R#R#R, and current trend to accept this arrangement#R followed here pending further investigations. Morphologically, however, it is so little divergent that adults are “near-indistinguishable” from argentatus#R; moreover, acceptance of the split comes with caveat that “splits or lumps based solely on mtDNA cannot be regarded as robust”#R. Nevertheless, races mongolicus and vegae have been treated as one or two separate species by some authors#R#R. Bluish-legged birds of Russian Arctic islands included in vegae, but sometimes separated as birulai. See also L. fuscus, L. argentatus, L. armenicus, L. cachinnans. Hybridizes with L. glaucescens in Alaska. Three subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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