Some variation in biometrics and plumage darkness noted in Colombia, where birds of C Andes are biometrically similar to those of Ecuador but birds of W & E Andes show some differences#R; further investigation required. Monotypic.
E & C Andes of Colombia (probably also adjacent Venezuela#R), S to Ecuador (in W, S to El Oro and N Loja) and Peru (extreme N, also C Andes S to Huánuco and N Pasco).
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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