Birds from high Arctic (NE Canada and NW Greenland E to N Novaya Zemlya) described as form naumanni, and those from S of range (Faeroes and S Scandinavia S through British Is to NW France) as grabae, but geographical variation clinal, involving wing length, bill length and bill depth, and boundaries between forms somewhat arbitrary#R. Treated as monotypic.
NE & E Canada (high E Arctic to SE Baffin I and Hudson Bay) and NE USA (Maine) E through Greenland to Jan Mayen, Spitsbergen and Novaya Zemlya, S to Iceland, Bear I, S Scandinavia, Kola Peninsula, Faeroes, British Is, Channel Is and NW France. Winters at sea, mostly in boreal waters S to New Jersey, Azores, Canary Is and W Mediterranean, rarely to Virginia and NW Africa.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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