Brazil; error = Veracruz, Mexico.
Sometimes placed in genus Agyrtria. Race chlorostephana has been suggested as possibly approaching species status, but nominate (in E of range) shows clinal variation in crown colour (blue to green) towards chlorostephana; nevertheless, the smaller size and different habitat use (pine savanna) of chlorostephana suggest a significantly divergent taxon worthy of further taxonomic research. Birds from Belize S to N Nicaragua formerly separated as race guatemalensis, but specimens from C & E Guatemala, including type locality of guatemalensis (Dueñas), show strong intergradation with nominate birds from Chiapas (S Mexico). In recent study, however, it was found that populations were separated genetically (mtDNA) by Isthmus of Tehuantepec, and this, together with associated morphological and environmental-niche differences observed, and results of coalescent-based test, indicated that selection had been sufficiently strong to counter effects of gene flow#R; further study needed. Proposed species A. microrhyncha (Honduras and Nicaragua), known from two specimens and separated in part on basis of unusually short bill, does not merit even subspecific recognition because characters appear to be based on individual variation of present species or are those of juvenile, probably of nominate. Two subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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