Family New World Sparrows (Passerellidae)

Near Threatened

Bachman's Sparrow (Peucaea aestivalis)


French: Bruant des pinèdes German: Kiefernammer Spanish: Chingolo de Bachman

Fringilla aestivalis

M. H. C. Lichtenstein

, 1823,

Georgia, USA


Closely related to P. cassinii and P. botterii, all having aerial song displays. Geographical variation largely clinal, and races weakly differentiated. Three subspecies recognized.

Subspecies and Distribution
  • P. a. illinoensis Ridgway, 1879 – EC USA in Arkansas, SE Oklahoma, E Texas and W Louisiana, occasional N to SC Missouri; non-breeding E Texas and along Gulf Coast E to Mississippi R.
  • P. a. bachmani (Audubon, 1833) – SE USA from S Kentucky and S Virginia S to S Mississippi, S Alabama and S Georgia; non-breeding in S of range (from Mississippi E to C North Carolina) S to Gulf Coast and C Florida.
  • P. a. aestivalis (M. H. C. Lichtenstein, 1823) – E South Carolina and E Georgia S to S Florida; non-breeding S Georgia and Florida.
  • Descriptive notes

    12–16 cm; 18·4–22·6 g. Medium-sized sparrow with relatively large bill, flat head, and long, rounded tail. Nominate race has thin buffy-grey median... read more


    Song, sometimes in short aerial display, highly variable but distinctive, generally consists of a... read more


    Lowland pine (Pinus) savanna, particularly mature, open pine forest with fairly rank... read more

    Food and feeding

    Feeds on grass seeds (e.g. Panicum), also on insects, primarily beetles (Coleoptera) and lepidopteran larvae; young fed mostly... read more


    Season mid-Apr through Sept; often double-brooded. Monogamous; apparently pairs relatively quickly after arrival on breeding grounds, but... read more


    Migration poorly known, as species becomes difficult to see when not singing. N populations... read more

    Status and conservation

    Not globally threatened. Currently considered Near Threatened. Classified as “Highest Concern” in the USA (Red WatchList priority species for conservation).... read more

    Recommended citation

    Rising, J. (2020). Bachman's Sparrow (Peucaea aestivalis). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from on 17 February 2020).