Subspecies sometimes separated into four groups: “baglafecht group”, “stuhlmanni group”, and two single-taxon groups represented by emini and reichenowi, respectively; these groups sometimes treated as four distinct species, given some striking plumage differences and some degree of isolation where restricted to montane habitats, but no regional variations in song described (although our own analysis indicates vocal difference for baglafecht group#R). Recent published ranges for emini and reichenowi in Ethiopia#R radically different from previous reports, indicating significant areas of overlap; research and confirmation needed. Several intermediates between populations have been proposed as additional races: fricki (described from Sidamo, in Ethiopia) currently synonymized with nominate, budongoensis (from Busindi, near Budongo, in W Uganda) with emini, and nigrotemporalis (from Mt Elgon, in E Uganda) with reichenowi. Eight subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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