Family New World Blackbirds (Icteridae)

Least Concern

Baltimore Oriole (Icterus galbula)


Taxonomy

French: Oriole de Baltimore German: Baltimoretrupial Spanish: Turpial de Baltimore
Taxonomy:

C[oracias]. Galbula

Linnaeus

, 1758,

America = Virginia, USA

.

DNA data indicate that this is sister-species to I. abeillei. Formerly treated as conspecific with latter and I. bullockiorum; hybridizes extensively with I. bullockiorum in a belt from S Canada (Alberta and Saskatchewan) S in Great Plains to S USA (Oklahoma and Texas), but assortative mating (or selection against hybrids) evident at several locations. Monotypic.

Distribution:

S Canada from NE British Columbia and Alberta E to S Ontario, S Quebec and Nova Scotia, S in C & E USA to N Texas, C Mississippi, NW Georgia, W Virginia and N Delaware; winters mostly in Florida, coastal California (rare), Cuba and Jamaica, and Mexico S to N Colombia and Venezuela.

Descriptive notes

18–22 cm; male average 34·3 g, female average 33·2 g. Male has head to upper back and to throat and upper breast black, lower back to uppertail-coverts... read more

Voice

Song relatively short, a series of pleasing flute-like whistles, usually no more than 10 notes in... read more

Habitat

Woodland edges, large clearings, orchards, parks and gardens; in non-breeding range found in wider... read more

Food and feeding

Arthropods, and various plant items. Arthropods include insects, mainly Lepidoptera and their larvae (caterpillars), beetles (Coleoptera)... read more

Breeding

Season May–Jun; single-brooded. Monogamous; extra-pair copulations reported, but apparently rare. Solitary, nearest-neighbour... read more

Movements

Migratory. Leaves breeding grounds from Jul. Main migration route down Atlantic slope of Mexico.... read more

Status and conservation

Not globally threatened. Common to locally common; common in N & C parts of non-breeding range. Estimated global population 6,000,000 individuals. Able to live in... read more

Recommended citation

Fraga, R. (2019). Baltimore Oriole (Icterus galbula). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from https://www.hbw.com/node/62248 on 25 April 2019).