#R no locality = Morocco.
Perhaps most closely related to A. melanocephala, with this lineage representing the oldest divergence within the genus#R. Previously considered close to A. chukar, A. philbyi and A. rufa. It has been suggested that race barbata is sufficiently different morphologically and genetically to warrant separate treatment#R. Geographical variation largely clinal; proposed races duprezi (C Sahara mountains) and theresae (Morocco) included in spatzi. Four subspecies recognized.
Successfully introduced (koenigi) to Canary Is and (barbara) to Gibraltar. Introductions in rest of Europe, USA and Australia either unsuccessful from outset or populations died out.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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