French: Hirondelle rustique German: Rauchschwalbe Spanish: Golondrina común
Subspecies and Distribution
H. r. erythrogaster
Boddaert, 1783 – American Barn Swallow – North America from S Alaska and W & S Canada (S from S Yukon, CW Mackenzie, N Saskatchewan, N Manitoba, N Ontario, SC Quebec and S Newfoundland) S through most of USA (except extreme SW, also S Florida) to Mexico (NW Baja California, and interior S to Colima, Michoacán and Puebla); also South America in E Argentina (N Buenos Aires). Winters from Pacific slope of C Mexico and W Panama, and E West Indies (Puerto Rico, Lesser Antilles), S through most of South America.
H. r. rustica
Linnaeus, 1758 – Eurasian Barn Swallow – Europe and W Asia from Ireland, Britain and N Scandinavia E to C Russia (E to R Yenisey), W Mongolia and W China, S to Mediterranean, N Africa (E to Libya), Iraq, Iran and C Himalayas; winters mainly sub-Saharan Africa, also S Asia, S Iberian Peninsula and N Africa. Recently found breeding in C Arabia (Riyadh)#R.
H. r. savignii
Stephens, 1817 – Egypt (Nile Valley).
H. r. transitiva
(E. J. O. Hartert, 1910) – Lebanon, Syria, Israel and W Jordan.
H. r. tytleri
Jerdon, 1864 – SC Siberia (R Yenisey E to Yakutskaya) S to N Inner Mongolia; winters E India and SE Asia.
H. r. saturata
Ridgway, 1883 – E Russia (Kamchatka and Sea of Okhotsk coast S to mid-Amur Basin); winters SE Asia.
H. r. mandschurica
Meise, 1934 – NE China; winters SE Asia.
H. r. gutturalis
Scopoli, 1786 – E Himalayas, S, C & E China, Korea and lower R Amur E to Kuril Is, Japan and Taiwan, also possibly irregularly in Kamchatka; winters S & SE Asia S to N Australia.
17–19 cm; 16–24 g. Distinctive plumage pattern and long tail-streamers. Male nominate race has forehead rufous-chestnut, crown and upperparts glossy steel-blue;... read more
Song is a rapid twittering often ending in a harsh rattle; main contact call is “witt-witt... read more
Open country, cultivation, human habitations, often near water. In Europe and North America mainly... read more
Food and feeding
Diet varies within and between years and sites, depending on local availability of insects. More than 80 insect families recorded in diet:... read more
Mainly May–Aug, starting later at higher latitudes (e.g. early Jun in Finland) and earlier in S (e.g. from Feb–Mar in N Africa... read more
Mainly long-distance migrant. On breeding grounds mainly Apr–Oct; forms large post-breeding... read more
Status and conservation
Not globally threatened (Least Concern). Generally very common and widespread, but marked declines in some areas. In terms of population size and range, has probably... read more
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