Huamachuco, La Libertad, and Cajabamba, Cajamarca, Peru.
According to recent genetic analysis#R, this species is part of a group that also contains C. antisiensis and C. curtata, this group being sister to C. erythrops. May be conspecific with C. antisiensis; although populations at extremes of ranges are clearly different, the two grade into one another in step-clinal manner, making it difficult or impossible to determine to which taxon certain populations should be assigned (this applies also to apparently undescribed population in Amazonas, N Peru); thorough, quantitative analysis of all parameters (plumage, morphometrics, vocalizations, genetics) required. Size variation among populations of present species substantial but somewhat irregular, correlated strongly with elevation (e.g. in Ancash, birds of high elevations in N are much larger than low-elevation ones in S); moreover, inter-locality variation is extraordinary, with virtually every population sample seemingly diagnosable on basis of size and plumage characters, and many at least as distinctive as currently accepted races. Three subspecies tentatively recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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