no locality = Suriname.
Forms a group with T. ruficapillus, T. subfasciatus, T. torquatus, T. zarumae, T. multistriatus, T. tenuepunctatus and T. palliatus (the “T. doliatus group”). Taxonomy of present species may require revision, and current races may constitute more than one species: taxa N of R Amazon deliver a somewhat faster loudsong than those to the S#R; however, plumage varies considerably within many races, apparently in clinal pattern, and comparisons of morphology with molecular and other characters needed to reconfirm validity of many taxa; current treatment tentative. Proposal to treat caatinga race capistratus as separate species#R was based on a series of minor differences in plumage, morphometrics and voice, without considering all taxa currently included in the species. Other proposed races include yucatanensis (S Mexico) and pacificus (Nicaragua), inseparable from intermedius; fraterculus (N Venezuela), indistinguishable from nominate; and subradiatus (E Peru), novus (Mato Grosso) and signatus (NC Brazil), inseparable from radiatus. In addition, birds from N Colombia, formerly considered a disjunct population of nigricristatus, intergrade with albicans and are included within latter. Twelve subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
Only subscribers are able to see the bibliography. Login or Subscribe to get access to a lot of extra features!