In the past, species alternatively labelled F. albigularis. May belong in the F. subbuteo complex (see below). Similarity to F. deiroleucus probably indicates a recent common ancestor, rather than convergence; vocal behaviour unusual among falcons, shared only with latter species. Cladistic analysis of syringeal morphology suggested close relationship with F. femoralis (but deiroleucus not included in taxa sampled)#R. Validity of races petoensis and ophryophanes often challenged, on grounds that they represent clinal variation in plumage darkness#R; on other hand, populations in far N of range (palest of all) sometimes awarded separate race, petrophilus (here subsumed within petoensis); some authors have preferred to recognize two races, petrophilus and nominate#R. Three subspecies currently recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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