Closely related to A. brachyrhynchus, which has been considered a race of present species. Taxonomic treatment of this complex has varied: in addition to recognition of A. brachyrhynchus as a full species, some studies have advanced the case for treating race serrirostris (with rossicus) as a separate species, morphologically and reproductively distinct from the three taiga populations of present species#R#R#R; a subsequent phylogenetic review also recognized three species within the complex, but in this case A. brachyrhynchus, A. fabalis (including rossicus and serrirostris) and A. middendorffii (incorporating johanseni as a synonym)#R. In view of the contradictory findings of these various studies, and the fact that races intergrade to an uncertain extent, it would seem safer for the time being to retain the widely recognized treatment of two species, A. brachyrhynchus and A. fabalis. Race serrirostris was long attributed to Swinhoe, 1871, but this is pre-dated by Gould’s 1852 description#R. Five subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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