South Carolina, USA.
Forms a species-group with M. lugubris, M. maxima and M. torquata; present species and M. torquata are sister-species#R. Proposed separation of population from W coast as race caurina on basis of larger size is unwarranted, as size is variable across species’ entire range. Monotypic.
Aleutian Is and CW Alaska (Seward Peninsula) E through S Canada to Labrador and Newfoundland, and S throughout USA to S California and S Texas and N coast of Gulf of Mexico. Winter range S to E Panama, Caribbean islands to Trinidad, N Colombia, N Venezuela and N Guyana; also Galapagos Is.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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