In the past, occasionally included in (sub)genus Eremialector. Recent study#R suggests that present species, P. namaqua and P. exustus may belong in a clade that includes also the two Syrrhaptes species; or, alternatively, that all five of these may form a group with P. gutturalis, P. personatus, P. coronatus, and possibly including also P. alchata and P. burchelli; further study needed. Geographical variation rather weak; species may be better treated as monotypic. Birds of Iberia and NW Africa formerly separated as race aragonicus; proposed races koslovae (W Kazakhstan), bangsi (NE Afghanistan) and enigmaticus (NW India) now included in arenarius. Two subspecies currently recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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