India and Africa = southern Gabon coast.
In the past considered conspecific with P. sanguineus and P. minor. Several races have been proposed, on basis of differences mainly in general size and in bill size and shape, e.g. relatively small rothschildi (described from Niger Delta, in Nigeria), larger and larger-billed frommi (from Kitungulu, in SW Tanzania), and still larger and huge-billed maximus (from Faradje, in NE DRCongo); individuals of each type, however, can be found together in some geographical areas, and they interbreed (pairing behaviour independent of bill-size morph); in addition, intermediates occur, and nestlings of pairs of each size morph are identical in mouth colour and pattern. Treated as monotypic.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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