South America; restricted to near Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Perhaps closest to C. aurita. Races not clearly defined either morphologically or geographically, and taxonomy confused. Contrary to some published statements, black frontal band of male present in all populations; this band perhaps tends to be broader in N than in S, but very variable even at a single locality, and therefore unreliable for any taxonomic diagnosis; variation also in other plumage characters (e.g. presence of spots on wing-coverts or extent of grey or white in underparts) shows no apparent geographical pattern. Race perspicillata may not be diagnosable. Further study needed, especially of long series of specimens, in order to clarify situation. Three subspecies provisionally recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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