Manado, north Sulawesi.
Formerly sometimes treated as conspecific with all of Z. nehrkorni, Z. stalkeri, Z. chrysolaemus, Z. minor, Z. meeki and Z. hypoxanthus. Ecologically and behaviourally close to Z. anomalus, with vocal resemblance also, and in past considered its sibling species in N Sulawesi. Situation complex and does not warrant recognition of subspecies groups#R. Race subatrifrons appears to be vocally distinct#R, but better sampling needed; this might support split of races into two, nominate with surdus and sulaensis with subatrifrons; latter would include birds found near L Matano (N end of SE peninsula of Sulawesi, > 100 km from nearest known population), with relatively long tail and distinctive plumage (distinct yellow rump, golden-yellow throat, yellow undertail-coverts, white rest of underparts, legs dark grey), presumed to represent an undescribed race (but voice unknown)#R. Four subspecies currently recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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