no locality = Kerguelen Islands.
There is no genetic mixing among subspecies, except in rare cases of ship-assisted vagrants. Electrophoretic and mtDNA data reveal differentiation of Crozet (crozettensis) and Kerguelen (minor) populations, and suggest that they diverged fairly recently#R, while observed morphological variation between them may reflect ecological factors; geographical isolation possibly main factor promoting variation within this species, and differences between populations perhaps due not only to environmental correlates of latitude, but also to possible genetic drift#R. Name nivea is a synonym of nominate. Four subspecies usually recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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