Present species, F. pictus and F. pintadeanus appear to form a group of closely related species; hybridization with F. pictus occurs in areas of contact. Geographical variation is clinal; festinus (from S Afghanistan) included in bogdanovi, and parkerae (Indian Punjab) included in asiae. Restricted population of Amik Gölü, in S Turkey, has been awarded race billypayni, but usually included in nominate. Six subspecies recognized.
Population of Kutch (W India) is apparently introduced; introduced also into S USA (Florida, Louisiana), Hawaiian Is, Caucasus and Guam (Mariana Is, in W Pacific). Formerly in Europe (probably introduced), and reintroduced into Tuscany (Italy) and Algarve (Portugal).
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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