“Sandwich Islands”; error = Sumatra.
Usually considered conspecific with B. fuscoflavescens. Island races hyperemnus, baweanus and hodiernus poorly differentiated and in need of review; at other extreme, one recent regional guide#R comments that all three may merit treatment at species level, hyperemnus “because of pronounced differences in ecology, biometrics and colouration”, baweanus “because of predominance of grey-morph birds”, and hodiernus “because of moderately deep mtDNA divergence and lack of widespread yellow morph”. Forms described as chalcocephalus (Bantam district, in Java) and cinereoventris (Tippera district, in Bangladesh) shown to be variations of grey morph of present species, and “B. immaculatus” found to be a variant of the yellow type. Proposed race major (NE India) was described on basis of inaccurate measurements and is invalid. Four subspecies provisionally recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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