Some recent authors place this species and other “masked gulls” in genus Chroicocephalus (see L. philadelphia, above). Sometimes treated as conspecific with L. brunnicephalus, the Pamir population showing characteristics intermediate between the two species. Hybridizes occasionally with L. melanocephalus and reportedly with L. canus#R; has hybridized with L. genei#R. NE Siberian population sometimes separated as a geographical race, sibiricus, slightly larger than those in rest of range, but differences minimal. Monotypic.
S Greenland and Iceland through most of Europe and C Asia to Kamchatka, extreme SE Russia (Ussuriland) and NE China (Heilongjiang); marginal in E North America (extreme SE Canada and adjacent NE USA). Winters S to W & E Africa, India, and SE Asia.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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