Case for recognition as a full species#R distinct from closely related M. nigra reinforced by recent vocal analysis#R. Differs from nigra in more evenly upsloping bill protuberance from half-way along culmen vs much more sharply rising protuberance from closer to bill base (2); all-yellow vs yellow-centred bill protuberance (3); distinctly different vocalizations (at least 2). Monotypic.
Breeds from R Yana, in Siberia, E to Alaska; and E Canada from coast of Hudson Bay to Newfoundland. Winters on coasts of Russian Far East, Japan, Korea and E China, and in America on Pacific coast from Pribilof Is and Aleutians Is S to N Baja California and on Atlantic coast S to N Florida; also inland on Great Lakes.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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