Sister-species to S. guatemalensis, based on plumage similarities and parapatric ranges, recently corroborated by phylogenetic analysis#R. Validity of race insignis, described from a single locality, seems questionable. Dark race caligineus overlooked in HBW. Geographical distribution of races, particularly N of R Amazon, not well understood, and individual variation in many of the characters used to describe most of them may lead to substantial revision of boundaries; specimens from R Purus (W Brazil) intermediate between pallidus and brunneus; proposed race olivascens (SC Peru) apparently not diagnosable, and probably represents clinal variation within brunneus (specimens from SW Amazonia less reddish on average than those farther N). Critical revision of races and their boundaries badly needed. Six subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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