Forms a monophyletic group with D. gloriosa, D. humeralis and D. carbonaria, and all were previously regarded as conspecific; known to hybridize, to limited extent, with D. carbonaria in small area of range overlap in Bolivia (La Paz). Isolated N race vuilleumieri, two populations of which are separated by c. 1500 km from larger nominate race in S, occurs in very humid zones, whereas nominate mainly in dry to arid zones, and song of at least W population of vuilleumieri (on Páramo de Frontino) differs markedly from that of nominate (though specimens of the two are so similar that many, if not most, are racially inseparable); further taxonomic investigation required. Two subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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