J. F. Gmelin, 1789,
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
Closely related to S. chrysoparia, S. townsendi, S. occidentalis and S. nigrescens; probably the sister-species of S. chrysoparia, and they have occasionally been considered conspecific. Has hybridized with S. townsendi; hybrid involving Mniotilta varia and (probably) present species at Long Point (in Ontario) in 1990. Proposed race waynei, accepted in HBW (described from Mount Pleasant, South Carolina), is now synonymized. Monotypic.
S Canada (extreme E British Columbia E to Newfoundland and Nova Scotia) and S in NE USA to Wisconsin, S Michigan and New England, and in Appalachians to N Georgia and Alabama, with isolated populations in C Arkansas and coastal E USA (extreme SE Virginia S to South Carolina); migrates to E Central America and Caribbean, also locally Pacific slope of S Mexico, and in smaller numbers to S USA (S Texas, S Florida) and N Colombia and N Venezuela.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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