Often treated as conspecific with T. ruficollis. Taxonomic separation based on several very different phenotypic characters and considerable vocal differences; reports of mixed pairs exceptional, and hybridization perhaps reduced by difference in timing of breeding. Recent summary#R suggested that reports of extensive intergradation possibly based on misidentification of “pure” specimens. Proposed race vogulorum (from Ural Mts) considered unwarranted, possibly representing clinal variation. Monotypic.
E European Russia (Ural Mts) E to NC Siberia, S to Tarbagatai Mts and NW Mongolia; non-breeding S to Middle East, E to Himalayas, S China and N Myanmar.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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