Traditionally thought to form a species-group with E. axillaris and E. leucurus; all three sometimes considered conspecific, but differ variously in plumage, morphology and behaviour. Form hypoleucus has been treated as separate species; vociferus sometimes included in nominate#R. Race wahgiensis sometimes included in hypoleucus. Proposed races sumatranus (from Sumatra) and intermedius (Java) doubtfully separable from hypoleucus. Four subspecies normally recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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