Considerable intermediacy between most of the described subspecies suggests that much of the variation observed is probably clinal, and validity of many races therefore perhaps dubious; race affinis doubtfully distinct from nominate cruentus, as is holoptilus from rocki, and annae from berezowskii. Subspecies sometimes thought to fall into two groups, the “Red-winged sinensis group”, incorporating sinensis, berezowskii (including annae), beicki and michaelis, and the “Green-winged cruentus group”, with all other races; this division, however, although geographically logical, appears unsatisfactory in terms of morphological characters of the taxa. Fourteen subspecies usually recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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