Relationships uncertain. Recent molecular phylogeny suggested that present species (with M. americanus) and M. leschenaulti are part of a subclade, with M. orientalis (including M. viridissimus and M. cyanophrys) as sister#R. Until recently, treated as conspecific with M. americanus (which see). Javan population sometimes considered subspecifically distinct on grounds of plumage, with race sumatranus consequently resurrected to include other populations; but detected differences appear to be related merely to age or wear. Monotypic.
SE China (including Hainan), S Thailand and Indochina (except much of Laos) S to Sumatra, Java, Borneo and N Natuna Is.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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