J. F. Gmelin, 1788,
no locality = France.
Part of a clade that contains also H. morphnoides (presumably also H. weiskei) and H. ayresii#R. Birds of C Asia sometimes separated as race milvoides, or alternatively harterti (from Transbaikalia), but variation very slight and clinal; same applies to albipectus (from Turkestan). Race minisculus recently described for birds of S Africa, on basis of biometrics and mtDNA#R; further study required#R. Monotypic.
SW Europe and NW Africa through E Europe, Asia Minor and Caucasus to C Asia, NE to Mongolia, L Baikal area and Transbaikalia (perhaps E to NE China), and SE to N & W Pakistan, N India and Nepal; also S South Africa (Western Cape and Eastern Cape) and N Namibia. Winters mostly in Africa S of Sahara, and in S Asia, mostly Indian Subcontinent.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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