Sister-species of G. hirsutus, and often considered conspecific but they meet in W Panama and W Colombia without interbreeding; present species probably had continuous distribution in past, but now interrupted by G. hirsutus, by which it is presumably being gradually replaced. Slight size and weight differences between the two discrete populations, Central American birds having longer wings than South American ones, but plumage coloration identical; South American populations sometimes separated as race columbianus. Monotypic.
E Honduras, E Nicaragua and Costa Rica to W Panama; W Colombia to W Ecuador (S Pichincha).
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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