Until recently, considered to include N. japonica, N. randi and N. obscura. Differs from japonica and randi in vocal characters and in part also mensurally#R; vocalizations similar to those of obscura, which differs from present species in its reduced white spot above bill (ns); plain dark brown uppersides and underparts (4); barred, not plain, undertail-coverts (2); unbarred undertail (2)#R. Name scutulata formerly applied to populations from E China, Korea, Japan and Taiwan (now N. japonica) on erroneous supposition that type specimen, from Sumatra, was migrant form; populations now recognized as nominate scutulata were placed in race malaccensis. Nicobar races isolata and rexpimenti (which sometimes synonymized with isolata) until recently included in N. affinis, but are in fact much closer to and almost indistinguishable from mainland N. scutulata#R. Several other forms doubtfully separable subspecifically; taxonomy in need of further revision. Nine subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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