Family Pheasants, Partridges, Turkeys, Grouse (Phasianidae)


Brown Eared-pheasant (Crossoptilon mantchuricum)


French: Hokki brun German: Brauner Ohrfasan Spanish: Faisán orejudo pardo

Crossoptilon mantchuricum


, 1863,

vicinity of Peking (Beijing); mountains beyond San-yu, in Jilin, China


Genetic distance (mtDNA) from C. auritum very small in one study#R; in another study genetic distances among all four Crossoptilon species found to be moderate, same close relationship between present species and C. auritum corroborated, and genetic diversity within C. mantchuricum lowest of any of the four species#R. Monotypic.


NE China. Now restricted to scattered localities of CE Shaanxi (Yichuan, Huanglong and Hancheng counties), W Shanxi (Luya Shan and Luliang Shan) and the mountains of NW Hebei; one population close to Beijing (Dongling Shan).

Descriptive notes

96–100 cm; male 1650–2475 g, female 1450–2025 g; tail c. 51·8–58·2 cm (male) or 44·7–57·6 cm (female). Unmistakable... read more


In breeding season, male gives “trip crrrr ah” similar to that of C. auritum,... read more


Montane broadleaved, deciduous and mixed coniferous forests with dense shrub understorey between... read more

Food and feeding

Mostly plant matter; total of 62 plant, fungus and animal species recorded in diet; main food items include largeflower onion (Allium... read more


Mating system presumed to be monogamous. Territories mainly defended Apr–Jun, but pair formation and territory defence commences mid... read more


Believed to undertake limited seasonal movements. Radio-telemetry studies have revealed that in the... read more

Status and conservation

VULNERABLE. Mace Lande: endangered. CITES I. Total population probably numbers 3300–11,000 mature individuals within an overall range of 147,000 km², mostly... read more

Recommended citation

McGowan, P.J.K. & Kirwan, G.M. (2019). Brown Eared-pheasant (Crossoptilon mantchuricum). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from on 9 December 2019).