Part of a clade that includes also P. thagus and P. erythrorhynchos#R. Until recently, often considered conspecific with P. thagus but differs in its smaller size (data weak but probably at least 2); proportionately shorter crest (at least 1); olivaceous gular pouch (3); red on lower mandible extending<50% vs >50% length of bill from tip, with basal section of upper mandible more horn-coloured vs yellower (2); grey vs whitish scapulars (2); grey vs whitish greater coverts on all secondaries (ns); absence of black papillae in loral area (ns)#R#R. Subspecific status of birds on W coast of Central America unclear. Race urinator sometimes treated as synonymous with californicus, and both of these have been considered barely distinguishable from nominate. Five subspecies tentatively recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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