Family Parrots (Psittacidae)

Least Concern

Brown-throated Parakeet (Eupsittula pertinax)


French: Conure cuivrée German: Braunwangensittich Spanish: Aratinga pertinaz
Other common names: Brown-throated Conure, Veragua's Parakeet (ocularis)

Psittacus pertinax


, 1758,



May be closest to E. cactorum (which see); one recent DNA study#R suggested that present species may be sister to E. nana and E. aurea. Disjunct form ocularis sometimes treated as separate species. Present species exhibits complex pattern of widely shared but varyingly emphasized characters which defy grouping according to type or geography; considerable geographical variation reflected in number of subspecies recognized, although some differences are minor and very possibly clinal in nature. Fourteen subspecies currently recognized.

Subspecies and Distribution
  • E. p. ocularis (P. L. Sclater & Salvin, 1865) – Panama (Chiriquí to W Panamá); recently spreading into SW Costa Rica#R.
  • E. p. aeruginosa (Linnaeus, 1758) – N Colombia to NW Venezuela (W Zulia).
  • E. p. griseipecta (Meyer de Schauensee, 1950) – Sinú Valley, in NE Colombia (possibly extinct#R).
  • E. p. lehmanni (Dugand, 1943) – E Colombia and SW Venezuela (W Amazonas).
  • E. p. arubensis (E. J. O. Hartert, 1892) – Aruba (Leeward Antilles).
  • E. p. pertinax (Linnaeus, 1758) – Curaçao (Leeward Antilles).
  • E. p. xanthogenia (Bonaparte, 1850) – Bonaire (Leeward Antilles).
  • E. p. tortugensis (Cory, 1909) – I Tortuga (Venezuela).
  • E. p. margaritensis Cory, 1918 – I Margarita (Venezuela).
  • E. p. venezuelae (J. T. Zimmer & Phelps, Sr, 1951) – N & C Venezuela.
  • E. p. surinama (J. T. Zimmer & Phelps, Sr, 1951) – NE Venezuela (S Monagas, Delta Amacuro) and the Guianas.
  • E. p. chrysophrys (Swainson, 1838) – SE Venezuela (SE Bolívar), SW Guyana and adjacent N Brazil (N Roraima).
  • E. p. chrysogenys (Massena & Souancé, 1854) – middle R Negro, in NW Brazil; possibly this form near Mamirauá Reserve on R Solimões.
  • E. p. paraensis (Sick, 1959) – R Tapajós and R Cururu, in NC Brazil.
  • Introduced (pertinax) to St Thomas (Virgin Is).

    Descriptive notes

    23–28 cm; 76–102 g. Forehead, face and chin yellow; breast dull olive; belly grass green with orange patch; mid-crown and rest of upperparts green; flight-feathers and... read more


    Flight calls include high-pitched screeching and harsh grating “scraart scraart” cries, rapidly... read more


    Savannas and semi-open arid scrubby areas with cacti and acacias, also mangrove woodland, tropical... read more

    Food and feeding

    Up to 70% of food plants used, NW Venezuela, were planted by man: seeds of Cassia, Peltophorum, Lagerstroemia,... read more


    Feb–Apr in E Colombia and NW Venezuela, although Oct–Apr also noted for latter area; almost throughout year in Suriname, where... read more


    Some seasonal movement to more humid areas during driest months, Santa Marta area, Colombia. In... read more

    Status and conservation

    Not globally threatened (Least Concern). CITES II. Locally common, Panama. Most numerous parrot in Caribbean lowlands and llanos in Colombia and in Guyana and N... read more

    Recommended citation

    Collar, N. & Boesman, P. (2019). Brown-throated Parakeet (Eupsittula pertinax). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from on 7 December 2019).