Malacca, Peninsular Malaysia.
Often treated as conspecific with A. griseigularis, but the two exhibit constant differences in plumage and measurements (see latter species, below); close also to A. rhodolaemus. Races sometimes thought to form two groups (“chlorigaster group” with heliolusius and wiglesworthi; “malacensis group” with all other subspecies) based on plumage of males; such division, however, not supported in examination of museum specimens, which revealed significant geographical overlap in characters. Geographical variation not well marked; races anambae, erixanthus and bornensis possibly better merged with nominate, in which paraguae and mjobergi were formerly included; heliolusius has in the past been synonymized with chlorigaster. In addition, population on Lombok (W Lesser Sundas) of uncertain racial affiliation, belonging either with nominate or with convergens; further study required. Birds from Marinduque and Camiguin Sur (C & S Philippines) reportedly represent two further races, but no descriptions yet formally published. Other proposed races are, off W Sumatra, pelloptilus (Simeulue I), pollostus (Mt Lembu, on Nias I) and nesaeus (Pagai Is), all included in nominate, as also are javanicus (Java) and baweanus (Bawean I, N of Java); basilanicus (Basilan, in S Philippines), included in heliolusius; sanghiranus (Sangihe I, N of Sulawesi), merged with heliocalus; and nesophilus (Mantehage, off NE Sulawesi) and citrinus (described from Wawo, in SE Sulawesi), both synonymized with celebensis. Race bornensis sometimes misspelt borneensis (original description checked). Sixteen subspecies currently recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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