Melville Peninsula, Canada.
Recent decision#R to separate four taxa below from B. canadensis was based on evidence of their relatively high levels of genetic divergence from other taxa, plus their generally smaller (sometimes strikingly smaller) size, proportionately shorter bill and reportedly distinctive voices coupled with their occupation of tundra habitats; although in general the case appears strong, its acceptance here is provisional given that nominate hutchinsii approaches B. c. parvipes in size and that the degree of intergradation along the long border shared by the taxa remains undocumented, while vocal convergence also appears to occur; however, in at least one narrow zone of intergradation the taxa largely segregate genetically probably based on behavioural and ecological factors#R, lending support to their status as separate species. Considerably more research into the distinctiveness and constancy of characters in all widely accepted taxa is needed in order to confirm the appropriateness of recognizing two (or, indeed, more) species. Proposed race asiatica, described from Commander and Kuril Is (and listed as extinct in first edition of Red Data Book), now considered synonymous with leucopareia. Large numbers of new races proposed in 2006/07 for this complex#R; all provisionally omitted here, pending further assessment. Four subspecies normally recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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