French: Tohi des canyons German: Braunrücken-Grundammer Spanish: Toquí pardo
Temascaltepec, México, Mexico
Subspecies and Distribution
M. f. mesoleuca
(S. F. Baird, 1854) – S USA from Arizona E through New Mexico and W Texas, and N Mexico S to N Sonora (except NW coast) S to 30° N and NW Chihuahua S to 31° N.
M. f. mesata
(Oberholser, 1937) – SE Colorado, NE New Mexico and NW Oklahoma.
M. f. texana
(van Rossem, 1934) – W & C Texas S to N Mexico (NW Coahuila).
M. f. intermedia
(Nelson, 1899) – C & S Sonora S to N Sinaloa (El Fuerte and Yecorato).
M. f. jamesi
(C. H. Townsend, 1923) – Tiburón I, off CW Sonora, Mexico.
M. f. perpallida
(van Rossem, 1934) – WC Mexico in Sierra Madre Occidental and E foothills (from Chihuahua S through Durango to Nayarit, N Jalisco and SW Zacatecas).
M. f. potosina
(Ridgway, 1899) – C Mexico from N Coahuila, W Nuevo León and SW Tamaulipas S to E Zacatecas, W & C San Luis Potosí, NE Jalisco, Guanajuato and C & S Querétaro.
M. f. fusca
(Swainson, 1827) – Nayarit S to Colima, E through Jalisco and Michoacán, to Morelos, Mexico City and NC Guerrero.
M. f. campoi
(R. T. Moore, 1949) – Hidalgo, Puebla and W Veracruz, in E Mexico.
M. f. toroi
(R. T. Moore, 1942) – Tlaxcala E to W Veracruz, S to Puebla and N Oaxaca.
18·5–22 cm; 36·6–52·5 g. Large, long-tailed sparrow with mostly greyish-brown plumage. Nominate race is grey-brown above, very slightly... read more
Song a musical tinkling, typically a series of 6 or 7 evenly spaced double syllables, “chilli... read more
Rocky semi-arid montane shrubland; found in scrub oak (Quercus), pinyon pine (Pinus... read more
Food and feeding
Diet principally seeds; also takes small animal items, including insects, millipedes (Diplopoda), spiders (Araneae) and snails (Gastropoda... read more
Season Mar to early Jul (rarely Sept); often double-brooded. Partners remain together all year and defend territory throughout year. Nest... read more
Sedentary; some slight elevational movements in winter.
Status and conservation
Not globally threatened. Fairly common to locally common. Some local populations extirpated through development, especially along rivers in SW USA.
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