J. F. Gmelin, 1788,
Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.
Sometimes thought to form a parapatric species-pair with P. gulielmi. Trend to treat nominate robustus as a separate species endemic in South Africa has gathered momentum in recent years#R#R, but published attempts at justification#R#R#R#R were previously hampered by inadequate evidence and argument (e.g. claims of ecological specialization by robustus on Podocarpus fail to recognize that race suahelicus occurs in Podocarpus zone in Tanzania); notion that robustus and suahelicus are parapatric unsubstantiated. However, it is the case that robustus vs suahelicus (with fuscicollis) differs in its pale green vs pale grey head and neck (2); darker, blacker mantle, wing-coverts and flight feathers (2); generally less extensive or no red on head of female, so that in adults the difference between the sexes is considerably less obvious (at least 1); generally narrower, less obvious pale fringes to flight feathers (ns); slightly smaller size (wing and tail) but with distinctly smaller bill (effect size –2.74, score 2); higher frequency range of single notes (allow 2); and clearly different note shapes (allow 1). Proposed race angolensis (from Angola) considered inseparable from suahelicus. DNA analyses support considering robustus as a distinct species#R. Monotypic.
SE South Africa (S KwaZulu-Natal and Eastern Cape Provinces)
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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