J. F. Gmelin, 1788,
Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.
Sometimes thought to form a parapatric species-pair with P. gulielmi. Trend to treat nominate robustus as a separate species endemic in South Africa has gathered momentum in recent years#R#R, but published attempts at justification#R#R#R#R were hampered by inadequate evidence and argument (e.g. claims of ecological specialization by robustus on Podocarpus fail to recognize that race suahelicus occurs in Podocarpus zone in Tanzania); notion that robustus and suahelicus are parapatric unsubstantiated. However, robustus vs suahelicus (with fuscicollis) differs in its pale green vs pale grey head and neck (2); darker, blacker mantle, wing-coverts and flight feathers (2); generally less extensive or no red on head of female, so that in adults the difference between the sexes is considerably less obvious (at least 1); generally narrower, less obvious pale fringes to flight feathers (ns); slightly smaller size (wing and tail) but with distinctly smaller bill (effect size –2.74, score 2); higher frequency range of single notes (allow 2); and clearly different note shapes (allow 1). Proposed race angolensis (from Angola) considered inseparable from suahelicus. DNA analyses support considering robustus as a distinct species#R. Monotypic.
SE South Africa (S KwaZulu-Natal and Eastern Cape Provinces)
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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