Family Parrots (Psittacidae)


Carolina Parakeet (Conuropsis carolinensis)


French: Conure de Caroline German: Carolinasittich Spanish: Cotorra de Carolina
Other common names: Carolina Conure

Psittacus carolinensis


, 1758,

Carolina and Virginia


Placed in a monotypic genus, which is sister to Neotropical Aratinga#R. Two poorly differentiated subspecies recognized.

Subspecies and Distribution
  • C. c. ludoviciana (J. F. Gmelin, 1788) – SC USA across Mississippi–Missouri drainage#R.
  • C. c. carolinensis (Linnaeus, 1758) – E USA from Virginia to Florida.
  • Last specimens of nominate race were collected near L Okeechobee, in Florida, in 1904, although rumours of its survival persisted into 1930s#R; last captive bird died in Cincinnati Zoo, Ohio, in 1918#R. The last individual of race ludoviciana is thought to have died around 1910. Principal causes of this parakeet’s extinction were human persecution for food, aviculture and the millinery trade, and for reasons of crop protection, and habitat loss (especially deforestation of bottomlands), probably facilitated by the species’ gregarious nature#R; competition for nest-holes with introduced honey bees#R exacerbated the problem.

    Descriptive notes

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    Recommended citation

    (2019). Carolina Parakeet (Conuropsis carolinensis). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from on 25 May 2019).