Species name often given as H. tschegrava, particularly in Russian works, name dating from same year as caspia; to avoid further confusion, name tschegrava officially suppressed in 1970#R. Australian and New Zealand birds sometimes separated as race strenua, but characters matched by many individuals of other populations. Monotypic.
North America, N Europe (mainly Baltic), Africa, Madagascar, C & S Asia, Australia (coastal, and sparsely inland), New Zealand; everywhere very local. Breeding range has recently extended northwards in the eastern Pacific into Alaska, and successful nesting has been reported north of the Arctic Circle at Krusenstern Lagoon on the Chukchi Sea coastline#R. Disperses more widely in winter.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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