Race coromandus sometimes treated as a full species, with some authors#R mentioning different morphometrics, breeding plumage and calls; another#R, however, indicated no difference in calls and that morphometric data yield only minor differences (effect size for longer tarsus 1.49, score 1; for shorter tail −0.94, score 1) (2), leaving the puffy, bright golden-orange head, neck and breast when breeding vs white on these parts except peachy-buffy crest and central breast plumes (3); thus, a total score of 5 retains this form at present as a well-marked subspecies, although further study may yield other points of divergence. Validity of race seychellarum has been questioned; only one specimen in breeding plumage known from collections. Three subspecies recognized.
Introduced (ibis) to Hawaii.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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