J. F. Gmelin, 1788,
Until recently, considered conspecific with N. floris, which now is treated as a full species because of its greater size (wing length 430–462 mm vs 365–426 mm#R) (allow 2); white colouration throughout much of body plumage (3); and tail with 6 (not 4–5) bars#R (2). Race limnaeetus (incorporating andamanensis and vanheurni) sometimes considered a separate species on grounds of plumage and lack of crest, but behaviour appears to be identical; moreover, andamanensis is more or less intermediate between nominate W group and the N & E limnaeetus group, perhaps representing a transitional stage#R. Five subspecies normally recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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